Table 1: Tactics - definitions
Knowledge, either learned or based on personal experience, of typical game situations and their possible solutions.
Deciding which tactical actions to execute. These decisions are based on tactical knowledge and are made either ahead of time by the coach or spontaneously during the game by the players.
Making use of basic condition as well as tactical and technical skills to turn a tactical plan into a real play.
The sensory abilities, mental skills and character traits required to execute a tactical action successfully; supported by good technique and condition.
General Individual Tactics
The tactical plan and action of an individual player who either has the ball or is attempting to win it. These actions are general in nature and are appropriate for players in all positions.
Special Positional Tactics
Specialized tactical plans and actions for players in specific positions (both attackers and defenders), for dealing with position specific game situations.
Tactical plans and actions involving two or more players, who either have the ball (attack tactics) or are working together to stop the opposition's attack (defense tactics).
Tactical plans and actions involving the majority of players on a team, to set up shooting opportunities (attack tactics) or to keep the opposition from setting up their own (defense tactics).
Set Play Tactics
Tactical plans and actions used by one or more players (attackers or defenders) to deal with kickoffs, throw-ins, corner kicks, free kicks or penalty kicks.
Tactical plan and actions (for any number of players) that take into account the unique conditions of a particular match (e.g. the oppositions strengths and weaknesses, your own team's strengths, weather, ground conditions, spectators, type and importance of match, references, etc.).
Table 2: Tactics and tactics training for youth players
Objectives for 6- to 10-year olds
Understanding basic concepts and simple tactical actions:
Objectives for 10- to 12-year olds
The basics of individual tactics
The basics of group and team tactics
Objectives for 12- to 14-year olds
Improving and expanding individual tactics
Expanding group and team tactics
Objectives for 14- to 16-year olds
Learning correct and physically assertive 1 v. 1 play
Learning more complex group and team tactics
Objectives for 16- to 18-year olds
Following position- and opponent-specific tactical instructions from the coach
Improving and expanding tactical skills as a team
Table 3: Tactics in soccer
Phase of Game Situation
A midfielder stands with is back to the opposition's goal, with one opponent loosely covering him. A defender kicks a pass on the ground to the midfielder's foot.
Phase of Tactical Action
The midfielder observes the incoming ball and notes the actions of the opponent covering him, as well as the actions and intended path of his teammate.
At this point, the midfielder has a number of options. He can:
The midfielder compares the situation with others he is experienced in the past, considers the alternatives, and anticipates how teammates and opponents will act.
Planning and Decision-Making
The player weighs the advantages and disadvantages of possible actions and chooses one.
The player chooses the following action: He turns while controlling the ball, dribbles toward the goal and shoots.
Using the skills and abilities listed in prerequisites, the player executes the action described in phase 3.
Coordination and Condition
Because the shot was rushed and poorly aimed, the ball goes wide of the goal and out. A promising situation has been wasted.
The player observes (negative) result if his/her actions, examines the causes, and notes of them for similar situations in the future.
Critical Thinking Skills